International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law and national legislation provide a number of rights to citizens. The maps and tables presented show the various patterns concerning age requirements for children to acquire rights in the EU. They also identify inconsistencies, protection gaps and restrictions deriving from different age thresholds. The aim is to assist EU Member States in addressing these issues and to facilitate the EU in exercising its competence to support and coordinate Member States’ actions related to children and youth.
FRA collected data in the following areas:
Defining different age groupsAge of majorityAge for marriage and sexual consentMarriage with consent of a public authority and/or public figureConsent for sexual activity with an adultChildren and citizenshipApplying for birth registrationApplying for an identity cardApplying for a passportApplying for citizenshipRenouncing citizenshipAge for political participationChildren's right to voteStanding as candidatesParticipating in youth or children’s councilsChildren and religionChanging religion without parental consentWithdrawing from religious education at schoolAge requirements and healthConsenting to medical treatment without parental consentRequesting euthanasiaSeeking medical advice without parental involvementAccessing reproductive or sexual health servicesAccessing abortion servicesPurchasing and consuming alcoholPurchasing and consuming tobaccoAsylum and migration proceduresAsylum applications for unaccompanied childrenAsylum applications for accompanied childrenSpecialised facilitiesConsent to medical tests for age assessmentFamily reunification proceduresFingerprinting under migration and asylum lawChildren in the digital worldConsent to disclose data on childrenConsent to use data on childrenSocial rightsChild benefits for children living with their familiesEmployment and financeEntering full-time workEntitlement to a minimum wageIssuance of a credit cardEducationAccessing vocational trainingObligation to enrol in early childhood education and care servicesRight to enrol in early childhood education and care servicesCompulsory schoolingAlternative careInstitutional residential careConsent to adoptionAccessing adoption files and information on the biological familyLesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) children's rightsEntering a same-sex civil partnershipEntering into a same-sex marriageEntering into a same-sex marriage or civil partnershipAccess to transgender hormone therapyAccess to sex reassignment surgeryMobilityDriving a moped.